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The Strategy is delivered over five themes, each aligning with one of the main approaches to reduce vehicle emissions or approaches supporting effective transition.

Broadly, the three ways to reduce a vehicle’s emissions are:

1. Improved fuel efficiency, employing advances such as lightweighting, homogenous charge compression ignition, and common rail diesel vehicle engines.

2. Use of low emission fuels, including renewable fuels (such as biodiesel and ethanol) and gaseous fuels (such as natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas).

3. Electrified transmissions, including hybrid, plug-in hybrid vehicles, and plug-in electric vehicles.

To increase the potential of these approaches, the Government will also focus on:

4. Research, development and commercialisation, including enhanced data collection, market assessments and advanced fuels research; and

5. Support and connect the community.